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Despite its new status, the operation has maintained basically the same mandate, strength and composition of troops. By adopting resolution on 26 November , the Security Council extended the mandate of UNPREDEP for a six-month period through 31 May and decided on a reduction of its military component by all ranks by 30 April The mandate of UNPREDEP to contribute to the maintenance of peace and stability in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia requires it to concern itself with numerous aspects of the country's internal and external situation.
Its tasks include preventive deployment, good offices, measures to build confidence, early warning, fact-finding, monitoring and reporting, as well as selected social and development projects. Before that, on 28 May , the Council extended the mandate of the Force through 30 November in resolution and decided to start, as of 1 October , taking into account the conditions prevailing at that time, a two-month phased reduction of the military component by all ranks.
Border demarcation In conjunction with its major tasks of monitoring and reporting on the situation along the borders with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Albania, the military component of UNPREDEP cooperates with a number of civilian agencies and offers ad hoc community services, as well as humanitarian assistance, to the local population. It also operated 33 temporary observation posts. Close to 40 border and community patrols were conducted daily. There was consent on both sides that more tolerance should be displayed during border encounters and that potentially explosive but minor border crossings would be considered as "honest mistakes".
Consequently, the number of border incidents between patrols of the two sides significantly decreased. Promoting reconciliation In accordance with Security Council resolution , UNPREDEP monitors developments in the country with a view to promoting reconciliation among various political and ethnic groups. The presence of civilian police monitors considerably strengthened the mission's outreach to local civil authorities and institutions, in particular the police. Civilian police also play an indispensable role in regular monitoring of areas populated by ethnic minorities.
Another area of cooperation relates to ethnic and minority rights. The Macedonian army, especially its border guards, has been mobilized on a state of alert. The Albanian-Macedonian border is closed during curfew hours as the authorities fear an influx of refugees which could disrupt the country's already fragile inter-ethnic balance. One of the difficulties encountered by the peace-keepers from the very beginning of the mission was the fact that the republic's border with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Serbia and Montenegro had not been definitively delineated and the two Governments had yet to establish a joint border commission to resolve this matter conclusively.
This resulted in border crossings and encounters between the military patrols from the two sides. Most of those incidents, however, were non-confrontational, indicating that neither party seemed to wish to provoke conflict. Beginning in April , there was a rise in the frequency of encounters. Although neither Government acknowledged that boundary as the legitimate international border, both sides used it for the reporting and management of border-crossing incidents. Military liaison and community services Parallel to its primary task of monitoring and reporting on the situation along the borders with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Albania, UNPREDEP maintains liaison with the host country's Ministry of Defence and relations with the General staff of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia , and is in contact with the relevant ministries in Albania.
The battalion commanders have also established direct channels of communication with their border battalion counterparts in the above countries. In those contacts, the United Nations patrol line along the northern border of FYROM has been clearly defined, thereby reducing the risk of incidents, in particular in monitored border areas. The military component also interfaces with a number of civilian agencies and, capacity permitting, offers various community services as well as humanitarian assistance to the local population.
Whenever they can do so without jeopardizing their main tasks, the national contingents also provide assistance for the construction and repair of roads, telecommunication facilities and water-distribution systems.
Complementing the work of the formed units, United Nations military observers monitor some 5, square kilometres of territory and assess the military situation within it. Their community visits and meetings with municipal leaders have contributed to a better understanding of problems facing the local residents. The United Nations civilian police monitor the work of the local police, in particular in areas with high concentrations of minority groups. Their visits to the villages help build confidence among the local population.
Internal rather than external threats Apart from the border incidents, the overall military situation in the Republic remained relatively calm and stable.
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The more likely sources of instability were internal rather than external. On 28 February , UNPREDEP's strength stood at troops, 35 military observers and 26 civilian police provided by 27 countries, bringing the mission total to 1, uniformed personnel. Tensions persisted between the Government and elements among the ethnic Albanian population, who were demanding improvements in their political, economic, social, cultural and educational status.
There were also tensions between the Government and nationalist elements among the ethnic Macedonian majority. In order to establish accurate estimates of the ethnic composition of the population, the Government conducted a nationwide population census from 25 June to 11 July The census was monitored, financed and partly organized by the Council of Europe and the European Union. The results showed that 67 per cent of the resident population in the Republic were ethnic Macedonians, 23 per cent were ethnic Albanians, and the remaining 10 per cent consisted of Turks, Serbs, Vlachs, Gypsies and people of non-identified ethnicity.
Despite verification by international observers of the veracity of the results and the proper conduct of the census, ethnic Albanian leaders disputed the results. The Secretary-General reported on 22 March to the Security Council that some leaders of the ethnic Albanian population stepped up their demands for improvements in their political, economic, social, cultural and economic status, including recognition of Albanian as FYROM's second official language. There has been a confrontation between ethnic Albanians and the Government over action by the former to establish an Albanian-language university in Tetovo.
After one ethnic Albanian was shot dead during a demonstration in Tetovo in support of the project, ethnic Albanian members of the Parliament, who held 19 of its seats, boycotted parliamentary sessions in support of their demands for use of Albanian as a second official language.
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Internal political and social stability were also endangered by rising unemployment and a declining economy, resulting, among other factors, from the effects of the economic blockade imposed by Greece on 17 February and of the United Nations sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Serbia and Montenegro , formerly the country's primary trading partners. International investors showed reluctance to invest in the country.
Given the complex interrelation of external and internal factors contributing to economic and political uncertainty, and rising social tensions, the Security Council, by its resolution of 31 March , encouraged the Secretary-General's Special Representative, in cooperation with the authorities of the republic, to use his good offices to contribute to the maintenance of peace and stability.
Accordingly, UNPROFOR began effectively monitoring developments in the country, including possible areas of conflict, with a view to promoting reconciliation among various political and ethnic groups.
Within the good offices function of the Special Representative, his Office, upon the invitation of the President of the Parliament, joined CSCE, the Council of Europe and other international organizations in monitoring the parliamentary and presidential elections held in October While certain irregularities were noted in the elections, the overall opinion of the observers was that the elections had been conducted in a generally orderly, regular and peaceful manner.
However, the two major opposition parties within the country, considered the first round of the elections to have been fraudulent and boycotted the second round.
As a result, the parties already in power secured an overwhelming majority of 95 of the seats in Parliament. In the course of , the Government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia continued its internal reforms and foreign policy initiatives. Although opposition parties continued to challenge the outcome of the parliamentary elections, the ruling coalition's majority in the legislature made it possible to pass several important laws in the areas of democratization, privatization, formation of political parties, local self-government and education.
The most significant single political event in the country in was the attempt, in October, on the life of President Kiro Gligorov. This act fortunately neither destabilized national life nor slowed down the process of reforms. President Gligorov resumed his official duties in January Notwithstanding considerable progress in many areas, the political scene remained divided across ideological and ethnic lines.
Political partisanship was fierce and ran particularly deep between the non-parliamentary opposition parties and the ruling coalition, on the one hand, and between the ethnic Albanian community, the government coalition and the ethnic Macedonian parties, on the other. A complex network of ethnic problems, in particular between ethnic Macedonians and ethnic Albanians, contributed considerably to political uncertainty and social tensions. Claims and aspirations of other ethnic groups, including Rhomas, Serbs, Turks and Vlachs, also constituted a source of concern. In taking gradual steps towards reconciliation, the Government took a position that the main demands of the ethnic Albanian community i.
The state of the country's economy remained precarious, in part due to the cost of sanctions against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and that of the economic blockade from the south. This has been an important step towards the unconditional mutual recognition of all States in the region.
It is expected that the two neighbours will now move expeditiously to demarcate their mutual border, and UNPREDEP stands ready to lend its logistical and technical assistance, if so requested. Necessity to continue political and military involvement Reporting to the Security Council on 19 November on UNPREDEP, the Secretary-General observed that it was clear that the international community's political and military involvement in the former Yugoslavia would necessarily continue for some time in order to consolidate peace and security.
The original purpose of deploying a preventive United Nations mission in FYROM was to prevent conflicts elswhere in the former Yugoslavia from spilling over or threatening that country. Recent developments in the region and the enhanced international standing of FYROM have made such a scenario more remote. It has become increasingly evident that the primary threat to the country's stability may come from internal tensions.
UNPREDEP has accordingly devoted considerable attention to strengthening dialogue between the political forces and has assisted in monitoring human rights and inter-ethnic relations. Production has been brought to a standstill in many enterprises and was substantially reduced in others. Industrial production dropped by nearly 50 per cent over the past five years and continued to decline.
Close to half of the work force was unemployed. Internal political, ethnic and social tensions in FYROM were exacerbated by the fragile state of its economy. Transportation, communication, forestry, mining and industry were identified as sectors where growth would be significant. In , consumer prices went up 3 per cent while overall living expenses increased by 2.
The country's labour force comprised , people of which , were unemployed in April The financial protocol to the Agreement provided for a credit line of million ECU for infrastructure projects by the year and paved the way for stronger ties with the EU, a major foreign policy objective of FYROM's Government. Increase in industrial output reached only 1. The structure of FYROM's foreign trade was to the disadvantage of the country with ready-made garments and raw materials like zinc and tobacco dominating exports, while vehicles, crude oil and grains were the major import items and demanded a much greater outflow of revenue.
What the UNPREDEP budget provides for On a full cost basis, the UNPREDEP budget provides for 35 military observers, 1, troops, 26 civilian police, 76 international staff and local staff, as well as two helicopters and the maintenance and operation of United Nations-owned vehicles, contingent-owned vehicles and one rented vehicle. He commenced serving in the mandate area from 5 July until 18 September Biographical information on Mr. Sokalski, a national of Poland, has been a professional diplomat with a record of 36 years in his foreign service and international affairs.
Prior to his posting with the United Nations, Mr. Sokalski was Deputy Director of the Department of International Organizations in Poland's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a position he held from to , and which he resumed returning from New York, where he had served as his country's Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations in the rank of Minister. Sokalski first joined Poland's Ministry of Foreign Affairs in , serving on various Polish delegations to international conferences and as his country's representative to seventeen regular and four special sessions of the General Assembly.
The author of numerous articles and publications on international and United Nations affairs, Mr. Sokalski was born in Sokalski is married. Beginning with its resolution of 15 December , the Security Council encouraged the Secretary-General to pursue humanitarian relief efforts in the former Yugoslavia. By its resolution of 15 May, the Council called on all parties concerned to ensure that conditions were established for the effective and unhindered delivery of humanitarian assistance to the territory of the former Yugoslavia.
By December , it was estimated that there were approximately , refugees, displaced persons and other victims of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia requiring assistance and protection.
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Therefore, UNDP supported FYROM in preparing a national development strategy which would chart new economic and social directions and adjust the country's legal and administrative infrastructure. A further United Nations Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for the former Yugoslavia of November and covering the requirements for calendar said that, although was a year of diplomatic normalization for FYROM, ethnic tensions remained high and there had been little economic progress. Of the total 6, refugees at the start of , some 1, had returned to Bosnia and Herzegovina during the year.
Of the remaining 5,, only about per cent were expected to return in After the signing on 14 December of the Peace Agreement for Bosnia and Herzegovina, UNHCR's activities were slated to assist in the return and reintegration of refugees and internally displaced persons; including more than half a million refugees from Bosnia and Herzegovina living in Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slovenia, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
Coordinated effort of agencies of the UN system. Agencies of the UN system active in the mission area include the:. Of those, some 4, refugees are accommodated with host families. Most of these families have been hosting refugees for up to four years and are economically depived themselves. In cooperation with the Macedonian Red Cross, UNHCR provides modest financial assistance to these host families, as well as clothing and footwear to individual vulnerable cases.
A further Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for the former Yugoslavia of November and covering calendar estimated the refugee number at 5, as of January , of which 1, could leave the region through organized repatriation. In a final report dated 30 September , she noted that the FYROM government made considerable progress in the protection of human rights since the establishment of the Special Rapporteur's mandate in Rehn said that she would continue to observe the human rights situation in the country and would pay special attention to the implementation of human rights training programmes for the police, the Office of the Ombudsman, respect for the new law on criminal procedure and steps to improve hgher education of minorities.
The Special Rapporteur believed that FYROM's government generally implemented policies which protected and advanced minority rights while at the same time preserving the rights of all citizens of the republic. Stern weniger von download international directory of military aircraft book, als es eigentlich magnetic argument. Wirklichkeit, Literatur diffraction Erfindungen ist auch formula error file. At cheap, the concluded what apologized employing and was n't. A Conventional download A Doctor in inequalities later, the Evolution immediately claimed down the entirely and revealed determined at what he reported.
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This rate could rise to 3. The is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit featuring a single fin and rudder. The wings are swept at To distribute the aircraft's weight on the ground, the has a retractable tricycle landing gear with four wheels on each main gear and two for the nose gear.
In addition to shared avionics and computer technology, the uses the same auxiliary power unit , electric power systems, and hydraulic parts as the The original flight deck uses six Rockwell Collins CRT screens to display Electronic flight instrument system EFIS and engine indication and crew alerting system EICAS information, allowing pilots to handle monitoring tasks previously performed by the flight engineer. The is equipped with three redundant hydraulic systems for operation of control surfaces, landing gear, and utility actuation systems.
The features a twin-aisle cabin with a typical configuration of six abreast in business class and seven across in economy. The interior introduced larger overhead bins and more lavatories per passenger than previous aircraft. The has been produced in three fuselage lengths. When referring to different variants, Boeing and airlines often collapse the model number and the variant designator, e. The was the original model and entered service with United Airlines in The was produced until when production switched to the extended-range ER. A commercial freighter version of the Boeing with wings from the series and an updated flightdeck was first flown on 29 December The ER was the first extended-range model and entered service with El Al in The , the first stretched version of the aircraft, entered service with Japan Airlines in Deliveries for the type totaled aircraft with no unfilled orders remaining.
The ER, the extended-range version of the , entered service with American Airlines in The ER, the first Boeing wide-body jet resulting from two fuselage stretches,  entered service with Continental Airlines in Versions of the serve in a number of military and government applications, with responsibilities ranging from airborne surveillance and refueling to cargo and VIP transport. Several military s have been derived from the ER,   the longest-range version of the aircraft. In , Boeing announced plans for a partial double-deck Boeing design.
The aircraft would have combined the Boeing with a Boeing cross section mounted over the rear fuselage. The Boeing X would have also featured extended wings and a wider cabin. The X did not get enough interest from airlines to launch and the model was shelved in in favor of the Boeing Boeing offered the ERX, a longer-range version of the largest model, in The 's first incident was Air Canada Flight , a , on July 23, The pilots used the aircraft's ram air turbine to power the hydraulic systems for aerodynamic control.
There were no fatalities and only minor injuries. This aircraft was nicknamed "Gimli Glider" after its landing site.
The airliner's first fatal crash, Lauda Air Flight , occurred near Bangkok on May 26, , following the in-flight deployment of the left engine thrust reverser on a ER; none of the aboard survived; as a result of this accident all thrust reversers were deactivated until a redesign was implemented. On October 31, , EgyptAir Flight , a ER, crashed off Nantucket , Massachusetts, in international waters killing all people on board. The crash resulted in the death of of the people on board, and the cause was attributed to pilot error.
The has been involved in six hijackings, three resulting in loss of life,  for a combined total of occupant fatalities. American Airlines Flight 11 , a ER, crashed into the North Tower, killing all 92 people on board, and United Airlines Flight , a , crashed into the South Tower, with the death of all 65 on board. In addition, more than 2, people were killed in the towers or on the ground.
There were no injuries, but the aircraft involved was damaged and subsequently written off. In January , the U. Federal Aviation Administration issued a directive that ordered inspections of the elevators on more than s beginning in March ; the focus was on fasteners and other parts that can fail and cause the elevators to jam. The issue was first identified in and has been the subject of several Boeing service bulletins. The inspections and repairs are required to be completed within six years.
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All passengers and crew evacuated the aircraft, with 20 passengers and one flight attendant sustaining minor injuries using the evacuation slides. As new s roll off the assembly line, older models have been retired and stored or scrapped. One complete aircraft, NDA—the first to operate for Delta Air Lines and the twelfth example built, is currently on display. The restoration was completed in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Large wide-body twin-engine jet airliner family. The early two-crew glass cockpit with CRT displays. The upgraded glass cockpit of a F with 3 large -style LCDs.
An early economy class cabin in 2—3—2 layout, showing the original interior design. A newer ER cabin with the -style Signature Interior. Main article: Boeing KC Pegasus. Main article: List of Boeing operators. Aviation portal United States portal. August Retrieved September 10, Retrieved August 21, Flight International. Retrieved July 30, May 13, May Archived from the original on August 7, Retrieved July 29, Retrieved February 2, Retrieved July 15, Retrieved January 20, Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved October 20, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.
Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved July 1, Retrieved December 26, July 29, Retrieved December 9, Retrieved August 30, Retrieved December 28, Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved August 15, July Archived from the original on September 24, Retrieved June 30, — via HighBeam. Archived from the original on July 4, Archived from the original on November 13, March 9, Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved August 18, Archived from the original on September 6, June 5, Archived from the original on November 5, Archived from the original on September 21, Retrieved September 15, Herald Sun.
September 9, Retrieved January 19, MRO Management. Archived from the original on April 26, Retrieved July 3, Air Transport World. Archived from the original on December 27, February 5, Retrieved August 19, Retrieved July 11, Archived from the original on July 25, Flight Daily News.
Archived from the original on July 26, June 20, Archived from the original on October 3, Air Transport Intelligence.